No. And Yes.
Jamie Lee Curtis was not in the released version of the film but she did shoot scenes for a prologue sequence that was cut from the film. She played the mother of a young Buckaroo Banzai in the prologue.
From the excised prologue
The prologue consisted of narration by Rawhide with Banzai as a boy (played by Greg Mires) and his Father (James Saito) and Mother (Jamie Lee Curtis) being killed when the prototype jetcar explodes.
Publicity shot #1
You can now see the prologue on the official Buckaroo Banzai Special Edition DVD and read about the prologue in the Buckaroo Banzai : The Resurrection of an American Hero article By Sean R. Murphy.
Publicity shot #2
This page was last updated on June 10th, 2016.
Maintained by Sean Murphy [firstname.lastname@example.org]